Outlook is helping you complete other activities and does not allow the address book update to interfere.

Just as Office Communicator has done since a later R2 hotfix, Lync also will not immediately download changes to the Address Book files when first launched, but instead wait for a random interval of time between 1 and 60 minutes.

To trigger an immediate download two steps must be taken on the client workstation.

However, I'd like to know how to set this up to be done automatically in Exchange 2010 for distributions lists like it was in Exchange 2003.

In Cached Exchange Mode, Outlook 2007 & 2010 downloads a local copy of the Global Address List (GAL), but only updates it every 24 hours.

Can somebody please tell me what I need to do to ensure these show up in the GAL?

The Outlook clients are in cached mode but they update the GAL every 24 hours and these distros still don't show up. While I was doing some testing of the old way (pure AD call) that we used to create DGs in E2k3, I found that once in a e2k10 environment there is a need to run the powershell command (Set-Distribution Group) to update the DG specifically the property "Hidden From Address Lists Enabled" with the appropriate value for it to show up in GAL.

To improve offline address book download performance, try defragmenting your hard disk.

Do send/receive settings affect automatic 24-hour offline address book downloads?

(This could take several minutes) Outlook shows the "Updating Address Book" status for a long time. Outlook has a throttling feature that slows the address book update when you are working in Outlook.