Lastly, M^Clintock has convinced himself, that the best way of securing the passage of a ship * In his volume before cited, p. John Brown gave strong reasons (which he had held for some time) for believing in the ex- istence of the very channel which now bears the name of M'Clintock. This it is well known was the favourite theory of Franklin, who had him- self, along with Richardson, Back, Beechey, Dease, Simpson, and Rae, surveyed the whole of that same North American coast from the Back or Great Fish River to Behring Strait. Skelton, from a Sketch hy Captain Allen Young — 309 Geological Map of the Arctic Eegions — 372 Cape Bunny, Peel Sound page 377 Map OF THE Arctic Eegions, showing the Discoveries of Captain M'Clintock, by John Arrowsmith, F. In this manner were we made aware of the B 2 FORMEE EXPEDITIONS. The traces assuring ns of that fact were discovered in August, 1850, by Captain Ommanney, E. From the Esqui- maux of Boothia Felix he learned that a party of about forty white men were met on the west coast of King William's Island, and from thence travelled on to the mouth of the Great Fish River, where they all perished of starvation, and that this tragic event occurred apparently in the spring of 1850. Anderson, the Hudson Bay Company's officer in charge, and his small party, deserve credit for their perse- verance and skill ; but they were not furnished with the necessary means of accomplishing their mission. Anderson could not obtain an interpreter, and the two frail bark canoes in which his whole party embarked were almost worn out before they reached the locality to be searched. Bayley and Eidley, of Cooper's Court; of the Directors of the East and West India Dock Company; of Messrs. * The crew of the * Fox ' received the usual double pay, granted by the Admiralty to a U employed in Arctic service. CLOWES AKD SONS, STAMFOKU STREET, AND CHAKING CROSS.

For, whilst many persons will be interested in the popular descriptions of the native Esquimaux, as well as of the lower animals, the man of science will hereafter be further gratified by having presented to him, in the form of an additional Appendix,f most valuable details relating to the zoology, botany, meteorology, and especially to the terrestrial magnetism, of the region examined. from the Atlantic to the Pacific, is by following, as near as possible, the coast-line of North America : indeed, it is his opinion, founded upon a large experience, that no passage by a ship can ever be accomplished in a more northern direction. It is now a matter of history how Govern- ment and private expeditions prosecuted with unprecedented zeal and perseverance the search for Sir John Frankhn's ships, between the years 1847-55 ; and that the only ray of information gleaned was that afforded by the inscriptions upon three tombstones at Beech ey Island, briefly recording the names and dates of the deaths of those individuals of the lost expedition, who thus early fell in the cause of science and of their country. locality where the Franklin expedition passed its first arctic winter. Rae brought home the only additional information respecting them which has ever reached us. 2,000 0 0 1,666 15 7 450 0 0 256 19 9 1,374 16 7 240 10 6 189 15 5 Aberdeen Steam Company, for carriage of stores and passage of 68 13 0 123 0 6 Provisions purchased from the Whaler ' Emma,' in Baffin's Bay- 36 2 5 Pay and wages to officers and crew, including allotments to their wives and families during the absence of the Expe- 3,888 2 9 34 11 0 33 15 0 Miscellaneous, including printers' bills, advertisements, tele- 49 16 6 £10,412 19 0 The above expenses of the Expedition would have been considerably ni- creased, but for the great liberality of Messrs. of Lady Franklin on the return of the ' Fox,' and declined receiving any remuneration whatever.

Great was the satisfaction caused by the diffusion of these good tidings among my associates (the distinguished Arctic explorers Admiral Sir James Eoss and General Sabine being present) ; and it was most cheering to us to know, that the Queen and our Royal President* took the deepest interest in this in- telligence — such as, indeed, they have always evinced whenever the search for the missing navigators has been brought under their con- sideration. Let me explain what is here implied by the simple word refit.

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Eighty-one years had in- tervened since the beef was ^cked, yet it looked quite eatable. It was suggested some j of -the beef supplied to last his three I years by the British Admiralty was bad ' before he set out. Hence, out of the twenty-five souls composing our small company, seventeen had previously served in the Arctic search. Captain Allen Young joined me as sailing-master, contributing not only his valuable services but largely of his private funds to the expedition.

Whether it is actually eatable will be known when a careful analysis has been made. The relief expedition found a heap of opened cans which had ' been thrown away uneaten. Expeditions of this nature are always popular with seamen, and innumerable were the appli- cations sent to me ; but still more abundant were the offers to " serve in any capacity " which poured in from all parts of the country, from people of all classes, many of whom had never seen the sea. Englishmen, as of old, to be clierisbed, I trust, as the most valuable of our national characteristics — as that which has so largely contributed to make England what she is. This gentleman had pre- viously commanded some of our very finest mer- chant ships, the latest being the steam-transport ' Adelaide ' of 2500 tons : he had but recently returned, in ill-health, from the Black Sea, where he was most actively employed during the greater part of the Crimean campaign. H 5 0 0 The brother and sisters of the late John and Thomas Hart- nell, of H.

has denied the reward of their labours, the return to their homes, to the affectionate embrace of their families and friends, and the acknowledgments of a grateful nation.'' PREFACE. She was placed in the hands of her builders, Messrs.

The immediate bestowal of the * At the Aberdeen meeting the Prince Consort thus spoke : — *' The Aberdeen whaler braves the icy regions of the Polar sea to seek and to battle with the great monster of the deep ; he has materially assisted in opening these icebound regions to the re- searches of science ; he fearlessly aided in the search after Sir John Franklin and his gallant companions whom their country sent forth on this mission ; but to whom Providence, alas ! The velvet hangings and splendid furniture of the yacht, and also every- thing not constituting a part of the vessel's strengthening, were to be removed ; the large c ri TTm GS OF THE ' FOX.' Chap. skylights and capacious ladderways Iiad to be reduced to limits more adapted to a polar clime ; tlie whole vessel to be externally sheathed with stout planking, and internally fortified by strong cross beams, longitudinal beams, iron stanchions, and diagonal fastenings ; the false keel taken off, the slender brass propeller replaced by a massive iron one, the boiler taken out, altered, and enlarged ; the sharp stem to be cased in iron until it resembled a ponderous chisel set up edgeways ; even the yacht's rig had to be altered.

Lynch, of Limerick, whence the ' ' Renovation ' ' had sailed for Quebec. Simpson, the mate ; the third one is a rough sketch by an Eskimo of the two vessels when beset off King William Island in 1848. From the Admiralty inquiries made afterwards, there seems little doubt that these two ships were the famous ' ' Erebus ' ' and ' ' Terror l Pre6cnte C to ^Tbe Xibrar? of ^Toronto The Voyage of the ^Fox'' in the Arctic Seas. These kind hints have been but partially attended to, and, as time presses, it appears with the mass of its original imperfections, as when you read it in manuscript. It is need- less to add that this experience of public opinion confirmed my own impression that the glorious mission intrusted to me was in reality a great national duty. awarded to all composing those splendid expe- ditions, surely the effort became still more re- markable and worthy of approbation when its means were limited to one little vessel, con- taining but twenty-five souls, equipped and pro- visioned (although efficiently, yet) in a manner more according with the limited resources of a private individual than with those of the public purse.

A NARRATIVE DISCOVERY OF THE FATE SIR JOHN FRANKLIN HIS COMPANIONS. Such as it is, however, it affords me this valued opportunity of assuring you of the real gratification I feel in having been instrumental in accomplishing an object so dear to you. I could not but feel that, if the gigantic and admirably equipped national ex- peditions sent out upon precisely the same duty, and reflecting so much credit upon the Board of Admiralty, were ranked amongst the noblest efforts in cause of humanity any nation ever engaged in, and that, if high honour was 12 LADY FRANKLIN'S VISIT. The less the means, the more arduous I felt was the achievement.

The ships were last witnessed by Western eyes in Melville Bay. from their donation fund for the purchase of magnetic and other scientific instruments, in order that our anticipated approach to so interesting a locality as the Magnetic Pole might not be altogether barren of results.

Greenland, on July 26 of the same year, if, indeed, they were not the two seen on a floating iceberg off the Newfoundland Banks in April, 1851. Mt dear Lady Feanklin, m There is no one to whom I could with so much propriety or willingness dedicate my Journal as to you. Being desirous to retain for my vessel the privileges she formerly enjoyed as a yacht, my wishes were very promptly gratified ; in the first instance by the Eoyal Harwich Yacht Club, of which my officers and myself were enrolled as members — the Commodore, A. 11 member of the Eoyal Victoria Yacht Club for the period of my voyage.

Thus, M^Clintock has proved, that the strait named by Kenedy in an earlier private expe- dition of Lady Franklin after his companion the brave Lieutenant Bellot, and which has hitherto been regarded only as an impassable frozen channel, or ignored as a channel at all, is a navigable strait, the south shore of which is thus seen to be the northernmost land of the continent of America.