The pushkala are called rdzogs pa (pronounced dzokpa) in Tibetan literature.

If tabla had arrived, or had been invented under Arabic influence from the root word tabl, it would be in the list of musical instruments that were written down by Muslim historians, but such evidence is also absent.

For example, Abul Fazi included a long list of musical instruments in his Ain-i-akbari written in the time of the 16th century Mughal Emperor Akbar, the generous patron of music. The third version of the Arab theory credits the invention of tabla to the 18th century musician, with a similar sounding name Amir Khusru, where he is suggested to have cut a Pakhawaj into two to create tabla.

Each is made of hollowed out wood or clay or brass, the daya drum laced with hoops, thongs and wooden dowels on its sides.

The dowels and hoops are used to tighten the tension of the membrane.

The textual evidence for similar material and methods of construction as tabla comes from Sanskrit texts.

The earliest discussion of tabla-like musical instrument building methods, including paste-patches, are found in the Hindu text Natyashastra.

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However, the ultimate origin of the musical instrument is contested by scholars, some tracing it to West Asia, others tracing it to the evolution of indigenous musical instruments of the Indian subcontinent.

This is not an entirely unreasonable theory, and miniature paintings of this era show instruments that sort of look like tabla, but this would mean that tabla emerged from within the Muslim community of Indian subcontinent and were not an Arabian import.