On April 12, Kevin Mac Kenzie emails the Msg Group a suggestion of adding some emotion back into the dry text medium of email, such as -) for indicating a sentence was tongue-in-cheek.

Though flamed by many at the time, emoticons became widely used after Scott Fahlman suggested the use of :-) and :-( in a CMU BBS on 19 September 1982 CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) built by a collaboration of computer scientists and Univ of Delaware, Purdue Univ, Univ of Wisconsin, RAND Corporation and BBN through seed money granted by NSF to provide networking services (especially email) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET.

Beginning 14 September, a annual fee has been imposed, which up until now was subsidized by NSF.

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Einar Stefferud soon took over as moderator as the list was not automated at first.

A science fiction list, SF-Lovers, was to become the most popular unofficial list in the early days Meeting between Univ of Wisconsin, DARPA, National Science Foundation (NSF), and computer scientists from many universities to establish a Computer Science Department research computer network (organized by Larry Landweber).

Download Your questions answered: How to protect your data in the cloud The number of successful cyberattacks per year per company has increased by 46% over the last four years.

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USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite.

In response, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the following year, within the Department of Defense (Do D) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military (:amk:) TX-2 at MIT Lincoln Lab and AN/FSQ-32 at System Development Corporation (Santa Monica, CA) are directly linked (without packet switches) via a dedicated 1200bps phone line; Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) computer at ARPA later added to form "The Experimental Network" National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Middlesex, England develops NPL Data Network under Donald Watts Davies who coins the term packet.

A few months later a three-judge panel imposes an injunction against its enforcement.

Supreme Court unanimously rules most of it unconstitutional in 1997.

The IAHC plan also calls for a competing group of domain registrars worldwide.