The next climatic region is Central and Eastern Ontario which has a moderate humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb).

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The region has warm to hot, humid summers and cold winters.

Annual precipitation ranges from 750–1,000 mm (30–39 in) and is well distributed throughout the year.

In the northeastern parts of Ontario, extending far as south as Kirkland Lake, the cold waters of Hudson Bay depress summer temperatures, making it cooler than other locations at similar latitudes.

The same is true on the northern shore of Lake Superior, which cools hot humid air from the south, leading to cooler summer temperatures.

Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes, making for abundant snow in some areas.

In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was hit by more than a metre of snow within 48 hours.

It is affected by three air sources: cold, dry, arctic air from the north (dominant factor during the winter months, and for a longer part of the year in far northern Ontario); Pacific polar air crossing in from the western Canadian Prairies/US Northern Plains; and warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.

Parts of Southwestern Ontario (generally south of a line from Sarnia-Toronto) have a moderate humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States.

The Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province.