Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley.Between 50 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies; fixed settlements were established, and pottery appeared.Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Quimbaya, and Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques.

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At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period (~8000–2000 BCE) have been found.

Vestiges indicate that there was also early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca.

When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada".

New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation.

In August 1538, he founded provisionally its capital near the Muisca cacicazgo of Bacatá, and named it "Santa Fe".

The name soon acquired a suffix and was called Santa Fe de Bogotá.They farmed maize, potato, quinoa and cotton, and traded gold, emeralds, blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and especially rock salt with neighboring nations.The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru.Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines.