To find what you’re looking for even faster, try using the search box directly above the table.For example, to find all digitized Cleveland papers, type in Cleveland, and your results will automatically only include entries with the word “Cleveland.” Please note that this search box only searches the list below and not the actual newspaper pages.In summary, what follows is a guess, based on limited research, about what may have been the routine in a mill producing high-quality papers somewhere in Europe between 13. Note: This and the historical plates that follow are all from the Diderot Encyclopédie published in Paris between 17.

It is based heavily on an essay I first published in 1989 and it is presented again here with permission of the original publisher. Sours made with bran or rye meal and water are often used instead of milk. Rags of the finest quality used for making better-quality paper, however, very likely started off being bleached using the “old Dutch method” described above.

The text draws as well on the earlier and the current research, my own experience as a papermaker, and the sources cited in the endnotes. Thereafter such items were repeatedly washed, and used again and again until they became too weak to be serviceable and were finally collected as rags and sold to the paper mill.

By and large, the latter sources are well known to paper historians. Into a large vat or vessel is poured such a quantity of buttermilk or sour milk as will sufficiently wet the first row of cloth. The excellent formation quality apparent in some of the better historical specimens tested during this project, in combination with the rather short fiber lengths encountered during the 1989 research suggest that great care was taken in sorting the raw material.

In a number of instances scholars working in related fields have offered especially interesting references or made other important contributions. Hills, and Leonard Rosenband gave especially generous support on the occasion of the original 1989 publication and their help remains much appreciated in the context of this website. Less attention was necessary if a poorer-quality or thicker paper was being made.

The 1300 through 1800 period, however, represents the rise and the slow but certain decline of hand papermaking as a major industry. the cloth should be taken out, rinsed, mill-washed, and delivered to the women to be washed with soap and water. This process, including the field bleaching, required from six to eight months to complete.

In the late 1700s traditional methods were still in use in many mills. [and] just before this fermentation, which lasts five or six days, is finished . [Then it was carried outdoors to be bucked yet again.] From the former operation these lyes are gradually made stronger till the cloth seems of a uniform white, nor any darkness or brown color appears in its ground. At Haarlem this industry continued large and lucrative until the end of the eighteenth-century, when the modern system of bleaching by the agency of chlorine practically stifled it.You can find a newspaper from an important date – which could be your birthday (if you want to know what happened on the day you were born, search the day after your birthday).Or search for all editions covering your chosen topic, team or personality’s greatest moments.But a generalization, once understood as such, is probably the best way we have of looking back over the past, especially if the subject is new to us. This alternate course of bucking and watering is performed for the most part from ten to sixteen times, or more, before the linen is fit for souring. Women and girls worked in the rag-sorting rooms of paper mills, and the younger ones learned from their mothers or other relatives.To hypothesize is dangerous as well, but if the hypothesis is based on knowledge and expertise, it can add considerably to our general sense of what actually transpired. Important sensitivities were passed from one to another while working together day after day, year after year. Sorting rags into grades of varying quality and strength.You can access the digital edition of a paper by clicking its title.