Andrew having been chosen an Apostle by Jesus before his brother St. The first historically known Bishop of Byzantium is St.

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It is surrounded by water on all sides except the west, which is protected by walls. The air is generally pure, and the climate very temperate.

Constantinople forms a special district (sanitary cordon) divided into three principal sections, two in Europe and one in Asia.

In the long war between Constantine and Licinius (314-323) it embraced the fortunes of the latter, but, after his defeat at Chrysopolis (Scutari), submitted to the victor.

It has quite lately been established that Byzantium received its new name of Constantinople as early as the end of 324 (Centénaire de la société nationale des antiquaires de France, Paris, 1904, p. Nevertheless, the solemn inauguration of the new city did not occur until 11 May, 330; only after this date did the Court and Government settle permanently in the new capital.

The Bosporus separates Europe from Asia ; it is about eighteen miles long and varies in width from about half a mile to a mile and a half.

The Golden Horn separates Stamboul from Galata and Pera, extends inland for about four and one-half miles and ends abruptly at the Valley of the Sweet Waters beyond Eyoub.

The imperial museum has a remarkable collection of sarcophagi and another of cuneiform texts.

In the Galata section the Genoese Tower (over 150 feet) attracts attention, as in Pera the residences of the ambassadors. by a Greek colony from Megara ; the site was then occupied by the Thracian village of Lygos.

The most beautiful statues of antiquity were gathered from various parts of the empire to adorn its public places.

In general the other cities of the Roman world were stripped to embellish the "New Rome ", destined henceforth to surpass them all in greatness and magnificence.

The population is estimated (1908) at 1,200,000 inhabitants, four-fifths of whom are in Europe.