In their 1978 United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice (Article 1), the UN states, "All human beings belong to a single species and are descended from a common stock.

In studies of these majority white societies, the aggregate of material and cultural advantages is usually termed "white privilege".

Race and race relations are prominent areas of study in sociology and economics.

By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations formerly associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism and a harmful intent.

(The term "race hatred" had also been used by sociologist Frederick Hertz in the late 1920s.) As its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is relatively recent.

The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e., subscribing to the belief that the human population can be classified according to race. Linguists generally agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages, generally.

A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, beginning, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning.

African-American university student Vivian Malone entering the University of Alabama in the U. to register for classes as one of the first non-white students to attend the institution.

Until 1963, the university was racially segregated and non-white students were not allowed to attend.

Associated social actions may include nativism, xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical ranking, supremacism, and related social phenomena.

In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.

While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature.